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New Garden of Mystery

New Garden of Mystery-Gulshan Raz-i-Jadeed
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GULSHAN-I-RAZ-I JADID, which forms part of Iqbal’s  Zabur-i-Ajam, occupies a very significant place among Iqbal’s works, because it deals with all the important problems of his philosophy. It was written after the book of the same name by Mahmud Shabistari who was born in the middle of the seventh century AH in Shabistar, a town near Tabriz in Adharbaijan. Very few details of Shabistari’s life are known but the period in w which he lived witnessed catastrophic changes which brought about a steady decline of Muslim culture. The fall of Baghdad in 656/1258 at the hands of Hulagu Khan was not a mere political defeat or the termination of a particular dynasty of Muslim kings. Only forty years after this fateful event, Islam won converts from among the grandsons of Hulagu and thus politically Muslims were able to regain their lost position. But in the cultural sphere the loss was so tremendous that later revival in the political field could not make up for the destruction of books and the indiscriminate killing of the scholars. The moral and spiritual impoverishment was so great that the people lost all confidence in themselves. Ibn al-athir says that the panic (during the Mongol devastation) made the people extremely cowardly. He quotes the instance of a man who, in obedience to the command of an unarmed Mongol soldier, kept lying where he was till the solider returned with a sword and killed him.
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